2008; Gupta 1999). Kalmijn, M., & Broese van Groenou, M. (2005). Hewitt, B., Haynes, M., & Baxter, J. My aim was to offer a comprehensive view of gender differences in the consequences of divorce in terms of women’s and men’s year-to-year changes in multiple outcomes. Men are also at greater risk for physical health problems such as heart attacks and stroke. 336-342. Although these results alleviate some of the concerns associated with selective attrition, respondents who dropped out shortly before or after a divorce are underrepresented in my sample. 2014). An early study (Keith 1985) concluded that women were more satisfied with their financial status after separation than men. 2002; Chilcoat and Breslau 1996), but they also exercise less and weigh more (Grzywacz and Marks 1999; Jeffery and Rick 2002; The and Gordon-Larsen 2009). Third, my conclusions are limited to the West German context from which the data were drawn. In‐depth, qualitative interviews with 40 women and 39 men who have experienced a gray divorce were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Because my analysis uses data from West Germany, it is important to understand specific historical, legal, and societal aspects of divorce. In this study, I examined gender differences in the consequences of divorce by tracing annual change in 20... Introduction. 4). 4 (social outcomes) illustrate change in all 20 outcome measures across the divorce process separately for women (black curves) and men (gray curves). 2013) and in the United States (Wu and Schimmele 2005). A second line of research has looked at changes in homeownership. Divorce laws, especially in Western societies, have generally moved from laws based on an explicitly gendered marriage contract to more liberalized laws that are gender neutral. I used the following restrictions to define the sample accordingly. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 211–224. In Germany, taxation provides strong incentives to combine a breadwinner’s larger income with a homemaker’s smaller income, reinforcing a traditional division of labor during marriage (Cooke 2006). After a first divorce, the common assumption is that a second marriage will fare better from previous learned experience. Journal of Family Issues, 13, 312–333. In my analytic sample, attrition rates were lower among divorcees than among those who stayed married. One potential reason for this is that many of these considerations allude to countervailing mechanisms that may offset each other when measuring average changes across the divorce process in a larger population male and female divorcees. Research by social psychologists suggests hypotheses about gender differences in the impact of parental divorce on the decisions to work and to … Three main findings emerged from the analysis. Bröckel, M., & Andress, H.-J. These friends may only know the divorcing couple as a married couple, making it increasingly difficult to separate an independent identity from the marriage identity. Amato, P. R., & James, S. (2010). In subsequent years, women’s incomes recovered to reduce the resulting average gender gap from more than 11,000 Euros to approximately 6,500 Euros of equivalized annual household income (all income listed in 2011 values). Obesity Research, 10, 809–815. Panel c of Fig. Although studies have focused more on the reverse direction of this relationship (i.e., how gender roles in the home affect the risk of divorce), some have addressed the effects of divorce on the performance of housework. Social and emotional loneliness among divorced and married men and women: Comparing the deficit and cognitive perspectives. Where one lives, what school their children may attend, and who they confide in are all subject to change. For example, Dutch women were more likely to leave the shared household in the absence of children, but the reverse was true in the presence of children (Feijten and Mulder 2010; Mulder and Wagner 2012). Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. Consistent with theory suggesting that women’s workplace achievement violates traditional expectations of gender and marriage, therefore creating domestic strain, the authors predict that career achievement is associated with a greater risk of divorce for women, but not for men. The divorce rate for a second marriage is between 60-67%. Research has suggested that fathers may suffer more than mothers in this domain (Leopold and Kalmijn 2016), particularly when they lose (or fear losing) contact with children (Bauserman 2012). For example, if the age effect on subjective well-being is negative, an uncontrolled model could overestimate initial drops and underestimate subsequent adaptation. How Midlife Crisis Symptoms Differ Based on Gender Share PINTEREST Email Print laflor/E+/Getty Images Love and Romance. These differences were due to conditioning this sample on observing a divorce across the panel. A 2 x 2 (event x gender) ANOVA showed that people expect that they are more likely to have a happy marriage than a divorce (Main effect of event: F (1, 305)=78.20, p<.001), irrespective of gender (Effects involving gender are not significant at p<.05). Theoretical, political, social, and spatial aspects] (pp. Bennett, N. G. (2017). Family Relations, 45, 336–342. However, gender differences in the effects of divorce on the probability of residential moves were relatively small and were significant only for women’s higher probability of moving 1 to 2 years after divorce (Table S5). Family Science, 1, 2–13. None of the gender gaps in terms of health and well-being outcomes changed in meaningful ways when predivorce and postdivorce periods are compared. The consequences of divorce for adults and children. Couples with children have a slightly lower rate of breaking up, but divorce impacts more than just the children. Dewilde, C., & Stier, H. (2014). Cohen, S., Schwartz, J., Bromet, E. J., & Parkinson, D. K. (1991). Becoming married, depression, and alcohol problems among young adults. 1 (economic outcomes), Fig. Sometimes, symptoms "owned" by one disorder evolve to be a separate, concurrent condition. After separation, women experience a sharper decline in household income and a greater poverty risk (Smock 1994; Smock and Manning 1999). The Journal of Men’s Health states divorce can have a greater toll on men than women. Moreover, women’s disproportionate losses in these objective measures of economic status were permanent. The suicide risk for an unmarried man is 39 percent higher than that of a married man. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. One line of research in this area has asked whether men … Although previous studies have found that women have more tolerant attitudes toward divorce compared to men, we find that this gender difference depends on the measure. My sample included 18,030 individuals initially observed in a marital union, 1,220 of whom divorced across the observation period (1984–2015). “Doing” gender in context: Household bargaining and risk of divorce in Germany and the United States. Some studies have reported the opposite pattern (Aseltine and Kessler 1993; Simon and Marcussen 1999), and others have found no gender differences (Horwitz et al. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0667-6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0667-6, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Unemployment and subjective well-being in Germany. An exploratory test. I thank Frederique van Spijker for her assistance with the literature review. Psychotic features often go unrecognized, but are very important to assesses for given the damage they may engender for the patient. Furthermore, future divorcees showed lower mental health and similar physical health and body mass index (BMI) compared with those who would stay married. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 43, 2589–2607. Holden, K. C., & Smock, P. J. Horwitz, A. V., White, H. R., & Howell-White, S. (1996). University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018, WV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, You can also search for this author in Both wife and husband are greatly impacted by divorce. The first and most intensely studied is theme parental strain associated with custodial arrangements. Gender differences in divorce adjustment. 1996; Mastekaasa 1995; Strohschein et al. Adverse events that can trigger the divorce process and influence the outcomes of interest represented another potential source of bias. Men are also at greater risk for physical health problems such as heart attacks and stroke. Second, I constrained the sample to observations between ages 21 and 60 (N = 28,548 individuals). The subjective well-being of the previously married: The importance of unmarried cohabitation and time since widowhood or divorce. 336-342. These physical health problems can range from the common cold to heart conditions and even cancer. The analysis was based on fixed-effects models for within-person change occurring up to 5 years before and after divorce. Second, I controlled for a respondent’s satisfaction with health. Demography, 54, 231–257. (1991). Satisfaction with family life showed the strongest reactions to the divorce process among all satisfaction measures examined in this study (panel c, Fig. Upon their first observation in the panel, respondents who went on to divorce were younger, less educated, more often living with children, more often unemployed, and in slightly worse health than the control sample of those who stayed married. Returning to the opening question of this article, my findings suggest that the prevailing view of women bearing a higher burden of divorce is supported when looking at medium-term consequences for a large set of outcome measures, including those on which men were previously found to be disadvantaged. These physical health problems can range from the common cold to heart conditions and even cancer. Gender differences in satisfaction with divorce settlements. Social Science & Medicine, 61, 2293–2303. Research has shown that these concerns may be warranted given that the effects of job loss on well-being were found to be stronger for men than for women (Leopold et al. For this year, linear probability models estimated a sixfold increase from a predivorce risk of approximately 7 % to almost 45 %. 1, panel d). To address this limitation, with the present study, I aimed to offer a comprehensive view of gender differences in the consequences of divorce by tracing annual change in multiple measures covering four outcome domains: economic, housing and domestic, health and well-being, and social. Women, for example, may initially feel deprived when comparing their predivorce and postdivorce incomes but then adjust their frame of reference over time. al.] Custodial arrangements represent the first and most intensely studied theme related to social outcomes of divorce. The same pattern was observed for women’s larger declines in satisfaction with household income, suggesting that gender differences in the consequences of divorce are generally larger in the short term than in the medium term. Changes in binary outcome measures were estimated by fixed-effects linear probability models. Seasonal depression is not a black -and-white…. Although these four domains are interrelated and partly overlapping, this classification is useful as an organizing scheme for relevant outcomes and related findings. Broese van Groenou, M. I. Finally, both women and men changed little in their smoking and drinking habits (panels e and f). As we see in the chart, for many countries divorce rates increased markedly between the 1970s and 1990s. Leopold, T. Gender Differences in the Consequences of Divorce: A Study of Multiple Outcomes. This view of women bearing the highest burden of divorce and requiring more public and private support than their ex-partners is partly based on solid evidence. Although many people who have divorced twice continue to marry again, the success rates are not in their favor. Amato, P. R. (2000). The latter omission is important given that research has indicated that men are more likely to exhibit externalizing behavior in reaction to stress (Horwitz and Davies 1994). Alcohol disorders in young adulthood: Effects of transitions into adult roles. Evidence from long-term panel data on multiple domains of well-being. Demography 55, 769–797 (2018). Repartnering after the first union disruption. In the case of residential moves, for example, women may more often leave the shared household for economic reasons, whereas men may more leave the shared household for family reasons related to child custody. An important benefit of these data is the large array of subjective and objective outcome measures combined with an extensive window of observation, allowing me to assess short-term and medium-term consequences of divorce as well as gender differences therein. Lifeprints: New patterns of love and work for today’s women. A recent study showed that compared with Germany, women’s short-term and medium-term losses in household income were indeed smaller in the UK and in Australia but not in the United States (de Vaus et al. 2). Although some of the relevant costs and resources are gendered, these differences seem to balance out on a larger scale. The decline of substance use in young adulthood: Changes in social activities, roles, and beliefs. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 14, 33–46. According to the isolation hypothesis (Kalmijn and Broese van Groenou 2005), divorce entails not only the loss of a partner but also disruption of a shared social network and shared activities (Broese van Groenou 1991) as well as the loss of neighborhood ties in cases of residential moves. Since the “unit” of marriage often involves friendships with other couples, expressing dissatisfaction with their previous married life may feel uncomfortable. Marital transitions, marital beliefs, and mental health. 1999). Alternative routes in the remarriage market: Competing-risk analyses of union formation after divorce. Women and men did not differ much in terms of the consequences of divorce for (1) subjective economic well-being; (2) residential moves, homeownership, and satisfaction with housework; (3) mental health, physical health, and psychological well-being; and (4) chances of repartnering and social integration with friends and relatives. A multiwave panel study indicated that these changes may be permanent (Hewitt et al. 45, No. First, men were more vulnerable to short-term consequences of divorce for subjective measures of well-being, but postdivorce adaptation alleviated gender differences in these outcomes. Leopold, T., & Kalmijn, M. (2016). As noted, Germany is an interesting setting to examine gender differences in the consequences of divorce because it has long represented an ideal type of a male breadwinner state. Ivanova, K., Kalmijn, M., & Uunk, W. (2013). A reflection on the changing dynamics of union formation and dissolution. The divorce rate for a third marriage increases to roughly 70%. Marital dissolution and work disability: A longitudinal study of administrative data. Similarly, if women’s coping is more internalized and men’s coping more externalized, the negative effects of both stress responses on general health measures may not differ much, on average. 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