Moreover, since Ni absorption by roots of soybean can be via passive diffusion or active transport (Seregin and Kozhevnikova, 2006; Yusuf et al., 2011), the relative Ni concentration may vary among genotypes. Chem. (1975). Clean Soil Air Water 37, 304–313. Figure 5. Soil Taxonomy: a Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. Plants are stunted because internodes are shortened. Ni deficiency in field situations appears to be far more … Under such circumstances, plants would not express their maximum growth potential even without any deficiency … : "http://www. 25, 109–112. 8, 1054–1060. Soybean plants obtained N through inoculation of seeds with N2-fixing bacteria (Bradyrhizobium japonicum, strain SEMIA 5079 and Bradyrhizobium elkanii, strain SEMIA 5019). Nat. Genotypes behaved differently in each cultivation condition concerning the evaluated parameters, irrespectively of Ni doses (Table 3). Plant Sci. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Explor. Integrated Risk Information System (1991). (2017). For that, one 150-μL extract aliquot was added to 2.0 mL of colorimetric solution. Bull. Nickel fertilization positively affected the synthesis of total ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid), which are the main way of exporting N fixed by nodules to other soybean plant tissues (Table 5). Necrotic patches of vascular tissue may appear on the surface as a brown area. Biochem. The extract was centrifuged at 13,200 RPM during 5 min, at 4°C. The relationship between WRB soil units and heavy metals content in soils of Catamarca (Argentina). 33, 143–157. 24, 1500–1511. Effect of nickel on growth and biochemical characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Contam. Many Abiotic factors exist which can cause plant problems as shown in Table 1. However, to date there are no records of Ni deficiency for annual species cultivated under field conditions, possibly because of the non-appearance of obvious and distinctive symptoms, i.e., a hidden (or latent) deficiency. deficiency, moisture stress, and other abiotic factors as listed in Table 1. Table 2. Urease is responsible for hydrolysis of urea into two molecules of ammonia and one of carbon dioxide (Witte, 2011; Polacco et al., 2013), while legume plants in symbiosis with N2-fixing bacteria form root nodules, in which hydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2) into protons and electrons (Shafaat et al., 2013; Bagyinka, 2014; Brazzolotto et al., 2016). Group D (Figure 4), with no response in N metabolism to Ni supply, comprised the eu3-a—urease activity-null. For the field experiment, ANOVA indicated, as observed in greenhouse experiment, a significant interaction between Ni fertilization and genotypes (A × B) for leaf Ni concentration, grain Ni concentration, grain N concentration, grain yield, urease activity, as well as ammonia, urea and ureides concentrations (Table 3). Therefore, Ni deficiency produces an array of effects on growth and metabolism of plants, including reduced growth, and induction of senescence, leaf and meristem chlorosis, alterations in N metabolism, and reduced Fe uptake. Nitrogenase not only reduces N2 to ammonia, but also produces molecular hydrogen. Available online at: http://sistemas.agricultura.gov.br/snpc/cultivarweb/cultivares_registradas.php (Accessed July 15, 2016). doi: 10.1080/01635580701268063. B., and Cakmak, I. (2016) demonstrated that Ni fertilization induces yield gains, while Kutman et al. Res. LG and MC are co-advisors and the coordinators of our research group. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2011.07.009. Acta Hortic. Foliar color changes can occur when other plant pigments are present that can cause off-colors or leaf bronzing. Nickel was established as an essential micronutrient for the growth of temperate cereal crops. doi: 10.1104/pp.105.072983, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar. Certified reference materials NIST® SRM® 1573a (tomato leaves) and BCR® 414 (plankton) were used for QA/QC protocols. Acta 1827, 986–1002. (2009). Soybean grains produced in each experiment were harvested and weighed for grain yield determination. AR and FdB are experts in plant physiology, contributing mainly in the field experiment, and in review of this manuscript. Hortic. Summary of characteristics for 15 soybean genotypes and two near-isogenic lines with urease-positive (Eu3) and urease activity-null (eu3-a). The NILs (Eu3 and eu3-a) were not cultivated in the field experiment. Microbiol. Yield gains of up to 2.9 g per plant in greenhouse and up to 1,502 kg ha−1 in field conditions were associated with a promoted N metabolism, namely, leaf N concentration, ammonia, ureides, urea, and urease activity, which separated the genotypes into groups of Ni responsiveness. doi: 10.1146/annurev.mi.41.100187.002003, Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017). In Western Australia, the highly weathered and leached soils are low in cobalt. Although little is known about Ni influences ammonia metabolism in plants, Bai et al. (1983), was used. Iowa: Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service. These values are well below the levels considered toxic to plants, which are > 10 mg kg−1 in sensitive species, > 50 mg kg−1 in moderately tolerant species, and > 1,000 mg kg−1 in Ni hyperaccumulator plants (Seregin and Kozhevnikova, 2006; Chen et al., 2009; Yusuf et al., 2011). (2014). Urea concentration was determined by colorimetry (color intensity) at 540 nm absorbance. Since it is only recently discovered as necessary for plant growth, it isn’t commonly added to fertilizers or tested for. Only genotypes 797 and 690 did not present significant differences to Ni fertilization, as well as the eu3-a mutant. In Conclusion Nickel fertilization in the greenhouse-grown soybean promoted increases in ureide concentration for all 17 genotypes, with an average increment of 1.3 times. In order to promote a better understanding of the overall Ni fertilization effect on soybean yield, leaf N concentration, leaf ammonia, leaf ureides, leaf urea, and urease activity for each genotype, two pPCA were performed (one for each experiment), with the marginal effect of genotype (overall mean for each genotype, independently of Ni treatment) being partialled out. Such lesions contained a very high level of urea, with an average concentration of 576 μmol g FW−1. Review: nitrogen assimilation in crop plants and its affecting factors. Stages of Soybean Development. Solo 39, 788–793. As previously mentioned, soybean plants photosynthesis was evaluated by measuring the SPAD index, as well as ETR, qP, qN, and FM. Under field-grown conditions, exactly the same genotypes presented reduction in leaf urea concentration in response to Ni fertilization, with an average reduction of 2.7 times (Table 5). Uruç Parlak, K. (2016). Soybean seed treatment with nickel improves biological nitrogen fixation and urease activity. Annu. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.07.009, Bai, C., Reilly, C. C., and Wood, B. W. (2006). The genotypes in Group C (Figures 4, 5), showed low response in N metabolism when Ni fertilized in both conditions. doi: 10.1038/nchem.2575, Brown, P. H., Welch, R. M., and Cary, E. E. (1987). For determination of N, 0.35 g of ground-dried plant material were measured using elementary analyzer (Vario EL, German). 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